How to Calculate Costs for PCB Assembly

Assembling printed circuit boards is not cheap. You need to spend a considerable sum of money to conduct the PCB assembly process. If you do not want to go overboard with your budget, see to it that you consider these very important factors. Keep in mind that these factors may vary depending on your location. The costs of labor and certain materials, for instance, may vary from one region to another.

PCB assembly

When it comes to labor costs, you should consider the location where your printed circuit boards are being assembled. Take note that quick turn PCB assembly does not merely require an automated process; it also requires human interaction. Cheaper labor costs mean lower total costs. If you want to save money on labor, you should consider setting up your printed circuit board manufacturing company in an area where the general cost of labor is not that high.

For instance, PCB assembly in North America is typically three to four times more expensive than PCB assembly in Asia. This is because more people who are skilled in assembling printed circuit boards can be found in Asia. While the cost of labor in Asian countries has drastically increased recently, that is still relatively cheaper compared to the cost of labor in North American and European countries.

In fact, the cost of labor in North America is double the cost of labor in China.

Assembling ten pieces of two-layer boards will just cost around $540 in China while assembling the same boards will cost over $1000 in North America. Assembling a thousand pieces of two-layer boards will only cost around $20,000 in China while assembling the same quantity of boards will cost around twice as much in North America.

Nonetheless, even though the cost of labor in Asian countries is low, companies still encounter certain problems such as communication delays because of the differences in time zones and shipping charges. Due to these factors, the overall costs of outsourcing printed circuit board assembly to Asian countries increased by ten to twenty percent. Then again, such cost is still cheaper compared to the cost that will be incurred if the printed circuit board assembly is outsourced in North American countries.

Another factor to consider when calculating costs for quick turn PCB assembly is the turnaround time. In general, shorter assembly times mean higher costs. If the printed circuit boards are assembled quickly, their prices may increase by 30% to 200%. If you requested for an expedited assembly, the company may put other existing orders on hold to focus on your order. When this happens, you can expect to pay a higher price, especially if the manufacturer is located far from where you are.

Of course, you should also consider the quantity.


PCB-AssemblyThe costs of prototype boards are generally lower than the costs of actual boards. Do not forget that the unit price of assembly is much lower when manufactured in large quantities. A lot of other factors can affect the total costs such as stencil, programming, and initial setup. Some companies no longer charge extra for programming services; hence, it would be prudent to expand your search to include such companies.

Furthermore, you should consider the technology used and the packaging. Printed circuit boards are usually assembled using through-hole technology and surface mount technology. Of the two, surface mount technology is the less expensive option. When it comes to packaging, electronic components are packaged depending on their parts. For instance, QFNs and BGAs are more expensive to pack due to the electrical connections they have. They also need accurate placements as well as X-ray inspections to check for short circuits and voids between their pins.

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The Many Faces of Custom Coins

It’s not just a humble piece of metal object. There is more to it than just symbols and colors inscribed on a metal plate, and it is certainly more than just a simple type of adornment, keychain or memorabilia. Custom coins have many faces to represent and are important to their receivers as much as they are for the givers. Read on and find out how these small coins provide significance to the lives of its holders.

What’s a Custom Coin?

A custom coin is a piece of rounded or shaped metal medallion printed with an organization’s badge, logo or insignia. It is usually given to members of a group as proof of membership, as a reward for exemplary service, as personal memorabilia, or as a visitor’s keepsake. These coins have no corresponding monetary value, and anybody can have a coin created for their own intended uses.
Custom CoinsCustom coins become fast favorites in the giveaway department today. It is beautiful, sturdy, unique and fun. The coins can be used as a challenge coin, placed on buckles, displayed a home or on the office desk, worn around the neck, or used as a keychain.

Who Uses Custom Coins?

Various custom-made coins are used by many organizations and even individuals. Here’s a quick run-down of them:

•    Military Services

The military have been constantly using custom coins ever since World War 1. These special coins typically bear the unit’s name and badge, and are used as forms of identification for the soldiers. The coins represent the bonds of brotherhood of these uniformed men in service. The coins are also excellent sources of pride, confidence and morale. For instance, when a soldier gets commendation for rendering good service, unit commanders usually give out these special coins as form of recognition.

•    Police and Fire Departments

The sacrifice of policemen and fire marshals are always worth recognizing; hence, police coins and fire department coins are created as a means to acknowledge their valuable work in public service. As in the case of military coins, these specialized police and fireman coins are given to members of the departments as form of unified identification and as morale boosters.

•    The Corporate Jungle

coinsThe business world is also among those organizations using custom-made coins. Specialized coins become a popular go-to keepsake for the employees and visitors alike. Corporate coins typically bear the name, logo and motto of the particular company. The coins are great representations of the company and their excellent reputation. These special coins serve as awards for the distinguished service of its employees. You can also offer them on special company occasions like anniversaries and significant company milestone celebrations. Coins can also be presented to esteemed corporate visitors and other company clients as a memorabilia and a simple token of appreciation.

•    Non-Profit Organizations

Custom-made coins are also used by some non-profit organizations. Like the usual customized coins, non-profit organizations’ coins may contain their name, logo, and the cause they are championing. The coins are unique ways of representing these organizations as well as their chosen causes. Non-profit organizations can have simple coins made to be resold as fund raisers for their various projects. Specially made coins can also be produced and given to their donors and helpers to recognize their generosity in extending help for the organization’s beneficiaries.

•    Customized Coins for Personal Use

Who says only organizations can have customized coins? Individuals can have it made, too! Civilians outside the military and police fold can also have their coins made for any purpose they want. Coins are typically used as inexpensive giveaways in family events and gatherings. A person can have special coins made to give to his family members; after all, it’s an exciting and unique form of family identification. These coins may bear the family surname and their coat of arms or family motto.

Where to Order Coins?

Many companies creating specialized coins are sprouting around town today, but it’s best to trust expert coin makers to ensure the finest quality coins for everyone’s satisfaction. Here at Challenge Coins 4 Less, creating high quality custom coins is our dedication. Attention to detail, free artwork assistance, quality products, fast service, no-fuss ordering system, and affordability- what else can our customers ask for?

A custom coin is not just a piece of metal coin carved with symbols and colors. It has many faces to show. Our coins represent various facets of work with their corresponding values and dreams. These also symbolize brotherhood, public service, hard work, charitable work, and loyalty, among others. Our customized coins are not just sheer external objects to display. They can also have deep connection with the person who carries it. Remember – there’s always value and meaning hidden behind the shiny metal finish of a colorful coin. is best provider of coins who provides custom coins in variety of forms.

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Types Of Irons Included In Golf Iron Sets

Golf clubs are the most important equipment used for the sport. Being the most common club type sold by distributors, shopping for golf iron sets is very easy to find. They come from different brands and distributed by reliable golf shops.

Iron clubs drive golf ball to the hole and users must know the iron types used on their clubs because they contribute on the effects of propelling the golf ball to the target.

Iron types are divided into two main types.

Numbered irons

Iron clubs have numbers representing their loft measurement. Loft refers to the angle between the vertical plane and the face. Loft measurement increases as the numbers on the club increase. The usual number range used on clubs is from 3 to 9, but some sets may have 0 up to 12.

Golf EquipmentNumbers on irons indicate the ball’s drive. Specific numbers fall into different categories that contribute to their performances. The driving iron, or also known as 1 iron, looks like a butter knife and thus receiving the same title. Its face has the smallest surface area, but having the most length among others in golf iron sets.

Long irons include 2 to 4 irons. Similarly with 1 iron, long irons have the lowest loft, but with long shafts. These irons are the best ones to use for long distance shots at low angles. Golfers use these clubs if they need to serve the ball from difficult areas like under trees.

Golf clubsMid irons are comprised of 5 to 7 irons. Players often use these clubs on hillier courses because of their longer shots while preventing getting in contact with low rise. These clubs often get into play during second or third shot of a par-4 or par-5.

Short irons are the clubs with massive club heads in golf iron sets. Due to their designs, these clubs are best to use for shorter shots that require higher lofts. Its design leaves an impression of being the easiest to hit. Nevertheless, resources indicate that some hits require utmost accuracy to ensure proper shot.

Wedge irons

Wedge irons have their unique functions in hitting golf balls. you get best quality Golf Iron Sets. This class has higher lofts compared to the numbered clubs and ideal for short-distance shots. Due to their designs, manufacturers incorporated several elements to compensate for its club size and shorter shafts like placing a sole to keep it from digging to softer turf areas, which also affect the shot quality. Aside from short-distanced shots, wedge clubs also prevent excessive rolling once the ball dropped on turfs. This implies better control particularly in tough golfing situations.

Golf DriverJust like numbered irons, wedges golf iron sets also come in various classifications brought by their functionality.

Pitching wedge is designed to get the moniker and having the lowest loft among this set. Conquering sand bunkers is no problem with a sand wedge. Its wide soles make it possible for players to escape sand bunkers and be closer to goal.

The gap wedge received such name being the middle option between pitching wedge and sand wedge. This club is different because of it causes golf balls additional bounce upon landing.

Golf Iron Sets

Finally, a lob wedge has the highest loft measuring up to 70 degrees. This high loft measurement makes it possible for the player to hit the ball over the any obstruction that may keep it from landing properly.

Without a doubt, golf iron sets have different club types designed for specific functionalities. Several of these irons are recommended for beginners although taking the sport seriously means the need to invest all of them in the end since the course challenges will be tougher to conquer without the right club.

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The Essence of Getting a Motivational Speaker

Getting your audience to do what you want can be very difficult if you don’t have the gift for it. If you want to establish a new system, policy or changes in your organization, you need someone who can deliver the message in a no-fluff manner and motivate people to do as you would wish them to do. You need an experienced motivational speaker who can leave his or her audience energized, educated, entertained as well as inspired. A good resource speaker who can deliver the message to his audience with humor and value is a gold mine for an organization who wants their idea communicated and understood by their people.

Speaking to an audience and have them accept and understand your message takes more than knowledge and guts. It also takes a lot of talent, inspiration and entertaining skills to get people to listen to you and motivate them to do unending possibilities towards the achievement of the organizational goals. However, it is seldom for a company to keep an in-house resource speaker to fulfill this role. Oftentimes, they outsource from well-reputed companies catering to this kind of industry.

Acquiring the services of a good motivational speaker can do wonders for meeting organizational targets. Whatever goals you want to attain, you can find the right keynote speaker to deliver a customized educational and inspiring speech in an entertaining manner. As long as you are able to obtain the services of well-known, reputable and well-experienced speakers, you will not fear of wasting your money for their fees.

Generally, keynote speakers know a wide variety of subjects which they could deliver to an audience excellently. Nonetheless, hiring a speaker who has established his or her experience in a particular subject matter is advantageous. It would not hurt either if you could obtain the services of a keynote speaker who believes in every word he or she says. In addition, your speaker should have the skill of making in-depth research and delivering his or her message in an innovative way that captivates and holds the attention of audiences, right through the end.

Good keynote speakers should know how to energize, motivate and connect with their audience. Injecting humor in their message just at the right moment helps people better remember and internalize the gist of the whole keynote speech.

In choosing the right motivational speaker, opt for someone whom you know can make a home run with the audience.

This means that the idea delivered is not only full of value (right research and well-prepared), it should also be conveyed in a captivating and funny way. The speaker must know how to inject humor at the right moment and every topic must be well-researched and powerfully delivered.

When you are able to hire the right keynote speaker, you will save much of your time and effort in introducing new concepts or system in your organization or in motivating your people to unite in achieving a certain goal.The right motivational speakers will deliver the message, motivate and inspire your people to do things towards the attainment of your company goals.

On the other hand, it is not just enough to hire a good speaker to do the job.People can say that they have listened to a great speech and exceptionally good speaker but they may fail to apply the concepts that such speaker have intended to convey throughout his or her speech. When this happens, you lose out on the end goal of the whole motivational speech. Therefore, it is not enough that you hire a decent or good speaker. You should find someone who goes beyond good; they must be exceptionally awesome resource speakers!

A fantastic motivational speaker will not only make their audience feel good for the time being. The motivation and energy that they inspire in people lasts even after the delivery of the message. These kinds of people are able to leave indelible marks in their audiences that motivate them to do what they need to do, in order to attain success. These kinds of speakers change the perspective of people who listens to them and who are inspired by what they convey. In reality, these speakers are not just mere keynote speakers. They are in fact, life gurus which can guide groups of people towards the achievement of a particular goal or undertaking.

As everyone knows, motivation is just a fleeting feeling. It cannot lasts forever. However, what’s significant are the things that you can do while you are feeling motivated. These resource speakers don’t just talk about achieving success and telling employees to enhance their productivity by managing their time and expecting these employees to magically be able to manage their time and increase productivity right away. The right motivational speaker will push these employees towards doing something tangible in a constant manner that helps them in attaining company goals. After all, you cannot achieve success by just randomly doing something. Success is attained by developing good habits and doing productive things in a constant manner.

Motivational speaker gives the information of  how to energize, motivate and connect with their audience. Visit website for more details about motivational speaker .

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Healthy Moves With HCG

There is information overload going on right now online. You are going to find that there are so many different pieces that come together in regards to chasing just about any information that you’d like. This is illustrated with the many confusing concepts that come through with the world of fitness, health, and wellness. There are so many options that abound in this arena that you may be left out cold. You will find that the options that are within the many arenas here are going to definitely be tough to really understand, and you’re going to find that the “right” thing for you, may not be listed within the top of search results. Things get really difficult to manage when it comes to hcg, and supplements as well, which is why you should take a few tips with you in regards to narrowing down the search of what options to choose from.


Look For Ingredients

The first thing that you should look at when pursuing supplements like hcg, is the ingredient list. Look to see what is put together for your use. You have to make sure that you are using the right things here, and look into ingredients that are going to push your limits, and not just add placebo. A lot of companies are putting together framework that is not exactly good for anyone, because they use fillers, and other properties. When buying any form of supplement, make sure that it’s 100% natural, and is not full of different elements at all. Instead, look for ingredients that are going to allow you to pursue the right element, and get the results that you need most of all.

Consider the ingredients and any other options that you are going to take. If you find that hcg comes in the form of drops, then you know that it can help you with absorption. If it’s in a pill form, consider if it’s a gel cap or something else. You want to be able to absorb as much of it as you can, in order to get the results that you need overall.

Consider Reviews

When in doubt, look for reviews that you can get manifest. It’s absolutely crucial that you look at the reviews that are in place when you are looking for any type of supplement for weight loss. If you don’t see anyone talking about what you want to purchase and take, dig deeper. You’ll find that there has to be someone talking about this, so that you can make a wise move and end up with a positive result overall. Without reviews, you will be blindly testing out options that are not going to be good overall.

With the rise of the information age, there are soap boxes everywhere, and you will not find that this notion is difficult to manage at all. It’s something that is absolutely grand, and will help you make the right moves going forward. As long as you find good reviews, you’ll be safe within the world of supplements.

Don’t Give Up On Diet and Exercise

Another thing that you need to consider is diet and exercise. This is something that is going to help you gain a lot of leverage in your chase moving forward. You’ll want to figure out whether or not this will present itself in the appropriate manner or not. Cycle through various options and figure out which one is going to stick for your needs. You don’t have to make this a complicated endeavor, as long as you’re using hcg supplements, you will end up with results that are going to be accelerated with the balance of these two additional pillars.

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